Jesus Christ - Messiah of the Rabbinical Writers1
by Rich Deem

Introduction

The charge is often made that the prophetic scriptures cited by the writers of the New Testament do not refer to the Messiah, but to other people, places, or events. However, this paper demonstrates that even the rabbinical writers2 recognized the messianic nature of these prophecies. Some of these writings are, of themselves prophetic, and contain prophecies not even found in the Old Testament scriptures.

Subject Prophetic Scripture Rabbinical Writing2 Fulfilled 
seed of a woman  And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise you on the head, and you shall bruise him on the heel." (Genesis 3:15 And I will put enmity between thee and the WOMAN, and between the seed of thy sons, and between the SEED of her sons; and shall be when the sons of the WOMAN keep the commandments of the LAW. Thou wilt be prepared to smite thee on thy HEAD; but if they forsake ;the commandments of the LAW, thou wilt be prepared to wound them in the heel. Nevertheless for them there shall be a MEDICINE; and they shall make a REMEDY for the heel in the days of the KING MESHIHA (Targum Palestine, Targum Jerusalem)

And I will put enmity between thee and between the WOMAN, and between thy son and her SON. HE will remember thee and what thou didst to HIM from (at) the beginning, and thou shalt be observant unto HIM at the end." (Targum Onkelos)

But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law, (Galatians 4:4
descendant of Abraham  "And in your seed [Abraham's] all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice." (Genesis 22:18) The promise in Gen. 22:18 is also explained messianically in Bermid Rabbah 2 (ed. Warsh., p. 5, b.) The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. (Matthew 1:1
descendant of Jacob  "I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; a star shall come forth from Jacob, and a scepter shall rise from Israel, and shall crush through the forehead of Moab, and tear down all the sons of Sheth. (Numbers 24:17 "The Israelites said to God: How long shall we be in bondage? He replied: "Till the day comes of which it is said: 'There shall come a star out of Jacob.'"
Debarim Rabba, (Sec. 1.).
When a king shall arise out of Jakob And the Messiah be anointed from Israel, He will slay the princes of Moab, and reign over all the children of man.
Targum Onkelos.
To Abraham was born Isaac; and to Isaac, Jacob; and to Jacob, Judah and his brothers; (Matthew 1:2
from the tribe of Judah  "The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until Shiloh comes, and to him shall be the obedience of the peoples. (Genesis 49:10 "Kings shall not cease, nor rulers from the house of Judah, nor sapherim teaching the Law from his seed, till the time that the King the messiah shall come, who will arise from Jehudah. How beauteous is the king, the messiah who will arise from Jehuda."
Targum Palestine.
the son of Amminadab, the son of Admin, the son of Ram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah, (Luke 3:33
descendent of Jesse Then it will come about in that day that the nations will resort to the root of Jesse, Who will stand as a signal for the peoples; and His resting place will be glorious. (Isaiah 11:10) "From the children's children of Jesse shall proceed Messiah, and 'His works shall be among you as flying serpents."
Jonathan (on Isaiah 14:29).
And there shall go forth a King from the Sons of Jesse, and the Messiah shall be anointed from his children's children.
Targum Jonathan.
And again Isaiah says, "THERE SHALL COME THE ROOT OF JESSE, AND HE WHO ARISES TO RULE OVER THE GENTILES, IN HIM SHALL THE GENTILES HOPE." (Romans 15:12)
descendant of David  "Behold, the days are coming," declares the LORD, "When I shall raise up for David a righteous Branch; and He will reign as king and act wisely and do justice and righteousness in the land. In His days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell securely; and this is His name by which He will be called, `The LORD our righteousness.'" (Jeremiah 23:5-6 "As thou wentest forth for the salvation of thy people by the hands of the Meshiha, the son of David. Who shall wound Satan who is the head, the King and Prince of the house of the wicked, and shall raze up (overturn) all his strength, power, policy and dominion." R. David Kimchi.
"Behold the days come, saith the Lord, that I will raise up to David the Messiah, who is righteous, and He shall reign a King, and shall prosper, and execute the Judgment of truth and Justice in the earth."
Targum Jonathan.
"And they shall worship before the Lord their God, and they shall hearken to Messiah, the Son of David, their King, whom I will raise up to them."-Jonathan (on Jer. 30:9, 21).
The book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. (Matthew 1:1
will shepherd His people  "And My servant David will be king over them, and they will all have one shepherd; and they will walk in My ordinances, and keep My statutes, and observe them." (Ezekiel 37:24 This is the faithful Shepherd; Of ,thee it is said, "Kiss the Son," thou art the Prince of the Israelites, the Lord of the earth... the Son of the Most High, the Son of the holy God - -and the gracious Shekinah.
Zohar (Gen. f6l. 88, c. 348).
"`And you, Bethlehem, land of Judah, Are by no means least among the leaders of Judah; For out of you shall come forth a Ruler, Who will shepherd My people Israel.'" (Matthew 2:6
heir to the throne of David  There will be no end to the increase of His government or of peace, on the throne of David and over his kingdom, to establish it and to uphold it with justice and righteousness from then on and forevermore. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will accomplish this. (Isaiah 9:7 "Behold the days come, saith the Lord, that I will raise up to David the Messiah, who is righteous, and He shall reign a King, and shall prosper, and execute the Judgment of truth and Justice in the earth."
(Targum Jonathan)
"He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David; and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever; and His kingdom will have no end." (Luke 1:32-33
anointed and eternal  Thy throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of uprightness is the scepter of Thy kingdom. Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated wickedness; therefore God, Thy God, has anointed Thee with the oil of joy above Thy fellows. (Psalm 45:6-7)

 "Of old Thou didst found the earth; and the heavens are the work of Thy hands. Even they will perish, but Thou dost endure; and all of them will wear out like a garment; like clothing Thou wilt change them, and they will be changed. But Thou art the same, and Thy years will not come to an end." (Psalm 102:25-27
When the mighty King of Jacob's house shall reign and the Meshiha, the Power Sceptre of Israel, be anointed He shall slay the princes of Moabee.
Targum Jerusalem
But of the Son He says, "Thy throne, O God, is forever and ever, and the righteous scepter is the scepter of His kingdom. Thou hast loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; therefore God, Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy companions." And, "Thou, Lord, in the beginning didst lay the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the works of Thy hands; They will perish, but Thou remainest; and they all will become old as a garment, and as a mantle Thou wilt roll them up; as a garment they will also be changed. But Thou art the same, and Thy years will not come to an end." (Hebrews 1:8-12
born in Bethlehem  "But as for you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, too little to be among the clans of Judah, from you One will go forth for Me to be ruler in Israel. His goings forth are from long ago, from the days of eternity." (Micah 5:2 "Out of thee Bethlehem shall messiah go forth before me, to exercise dominion over Israel. Whose name has been spoken from of Old from the day of Eternity."
Targum Jonathan.
"Out of thee (Bethlehem) shall come forth unto me Messiah, the Son of David."
R. Jarchi.
And Joseph also went up from Galilee, from the city of Nazareth, to Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David, in order to register, along with Mary, who was engaged to him, and was with child.... And she gave birth to her first-born son; and she wrapped Him in cloths, and laid Him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn. (Luke 2:4-5, 7
time for His birth  "So you are to know and discern that from the issuing of a decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until Messiah the Prince there will be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks; it will be built again, with plaza and moat, even in times of distress. (Daniel 9:25 God has decreed to build up Jerusalem and show a star... This star is the Messiah.
Sohar (Num. fol. 85, c. 340).
"I have examined and searched all the Holy Scriptures, and have not found -the time for the coming of messiah, clearly fixed, except In the words of Gabriel to the prophet Daniel, which are written in the ninth chapter of the prophecy of Daniel."
R. Moses Abraham Levi.
Now it came about in those days that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus, that a census be taken of all the inhabited earth. This was the first census taken while Quirinius was governor of Syria. (Luke 2:1-2
to be born of a virgin  "Therefore the LORD Himself will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call His name Immanuel. (Isaiah 7:14 "Behold, a Virgin shall conceive." There are some who say that this was made a sign , because a Virgin "fuit non apta generationi."
Jarchi.
Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city in Galilee, called Nazareth, to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, of the descendants of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.... And the angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary; for you have found favor with God. And behold, you will conceive in your womb, and bear a son, and you shall name Him Jesus." (Luke 1:26-27, 30-31
preceded by Elijah  "Behold, I am going to send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD. And he will restore the hearts of the fathers to their children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the land with a curse." (Malachi 4:5-6 "Malachi 3:1 is applied to Elijah as the forerunner of the Messiah in Pirke de R. Eliezer, c. 29.
Edersheim, app. 9. p. 736
"And Israel will not make great repentance till Elijah-his memory for blessings!- come, as it is said in Malachi 4:5, 6, 'Behold, I will send you Elijah, the prophet'."
Pirke de R. Elieser (c. 43).
"For all the prophets and the Law prophesied until John. And if you care to accept it, he himself is Elijah, who was to come." (Matthew 11:13-14
declared the Son of God  "I will surely tell of the decree of the LORD: He said to Me, `Thou art My Son, today I have begotten Thee.'" (Psalm 2:7)

 Who has ascended into heaven and descended? Who has gathered the wind in His fists? Who has wrapped the waters in His garment? Who has established all the ends of the earth? What is His name or His son's name? Surely you know! (Proverbs 30:4
This is the faithful Shepherd; Of ,thee it is said, "Kiss the Son," thou art the Prince of the Israelites, the Lord of the earth... the Son of the Most High, the Son of the holy God - -and the gracious Shekinah.
Zohar (Gen. f6l. 88, c. 348).
R. Huni in the name of R. Ide and R. Joshua said, that this man is the King Messiah of whom it is said, Psa. 2:7, "This day have I begotten thee."
Talmud Babylonian
"He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David;" (Luke 1:32)

 and behold, a voice out of the heavens, saying, "This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well-pleased." (Matthew 3:17
a prophet  "The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your countrymen, you shall listen to him." (Deuteronomy 18:15 "A prophet from among thee, of thy brethren, like unto me, will the Lord thy God raise up unto thee, to Him shall ye hearken."
Targum Onkelos.
"And a right prophet (prophet of Righteousness) will the Lord your God give you, a prophet from among you of your brethren like unto Me with the Holy Spirit, will the Lord your God raise up unto you; to Him shall ye be obedient."
Targum Palestine.
and that He may send Jesus, the Christ appointed for you... "Moses said, `The Lord God shall raise up for you a prophet like me from your brethren; to Him you shall give heed in everything He says to you.'" (Acts 3:20, 22
will minister to Gentiles  "Behold, My Servant, whom I uphold; My chosen one in whom My soul delights. I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice to the nations. (Isaiah 42:1)

 Listen to Me, O islands, and pay attention, you peoples from afar. The LORD called Me from the womb; from the body of My mother He named Me. (Isaiah 49:1
"And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse, which shall stand for an Ensign of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek: and His rest shall be glorious." If so, then why should the messiah come, and what will he do to the congregation of Israel? He will redeem Israel, and give them thirty commandments according to Zech. 11:12
Edersheim
When the king messiah shall be revealed all the nations of all the world shall be gathered to Him"
R. Simeon ben Jochai
"In fact the messiah is such a prophet as it is stated in the Midrash on the verse, "Behold my servant shall prosper... Moses by the miracles which he wrought drew but a single nation to the worship of God, but the Messiah will draw all nations to the worship of God."
R. Levi ben Gershom.
MAT 12:18 "Behold, My Servant whom I have chosen; My Beloved in whom My soul is well-pleased; I will put My Spirit upon Him, and He shall proclaim justice to the Gentiles... "And in His name the Gentiles will hope." (Matthew 12:18-21)

 A light of revelation to the Gentiles, And the glory of Thy people Israel. " (Luke 2:32
to intercede for the people  Therefore, I will allot Him a portion with the great, And He will divide the booty with the strong; Because He poured out Himself to death, And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet He Himself bore the sin of many, And interceded for the transgressors. (Isaiah 53:12)

 And He saw that there was no man, And was astonished that there was no one to intercede; Then His own arm brought salvation to Him; And His righteousness upheld Him. (Isaiah 59:16
"and with the mighty he shall divide the spoils," which the Messiah and his sons will take, and some of it will be given to the "wise ones." "Jesus was numbered with the transgressors, in the penalty which befell them.
Jacob ben Ruben (The Quarate).
He (Messiah) shall intercede for many sins, and the rebellious for His sake shall be forgiven.
Targum Jonathan.
And when Israel is sinful, the Messiah seeks for mercy upon them, as it is written, "By His stripes we were healed, and he carried the sins of many; and made intercession for the transgressors."
B'reshith Rabbah (pp. 430, 671.)
who is the one who condemns? Christ Jesus is He who died, yes, rather who was raised, who is at the right hand of God, who also intercedes for us. (Romans 8:34)

 Hence, also, He is able to save forever those who draw near to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them. (Hebrews 7:25
rejected by His own people, the Jews  He was despised and forsaken of men, a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief; and like one from whom men hide their face, He was despised, and we did not esteem Him. (Isaiah 53:3)

 "Then He shall become a sanctuary; But to both the houses of Israel, a stone to strike and a rock to stumble over, And a snare and a trap for the inhabitants of Jerusalem." (Isaiah 8:14)

 Therefore thus says the LORD God, "Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a tested stone, A costly cornerstone for the foundation, firmly placed. He who believes in it will not be disturbed." (Isaiah 28:16)

 The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief corner stone. (Psalm 118:22
"Then he (my servant Messiah) will become despised, and will cut off the glory of all the Kingdoms; they will be prostrate and mourning, like a man of pains, and like One destined for sickness; and as though the presence of the Shekinah had been withdrawn from us, they will be despised, and esteemed not."
Targum Jonathan.
He came to His own, and those who were His own did not receive Him. (John 1:11)

 But they cried out all together, saying, "Away with this man, and release for us Barabbas!" (Luke 23:18)

 He is the stone which was rejected by you, the builders, but which became the very corner stone. (Acts 4:11)

 For this is contained in Scripture: "Behold I lay in Zion a choice stone, a precious corner stone, And he who believes in Him shall not be disappointed." This precious value, then, is for you who believe. But for those who disbelieve, "The stone which the builders rejected, This became the very corner stone," and, "A stone of stumbling and a rock of offense"; for they stumble because they are disobedient to the word, and to this doom they were also appointed. (1 Peter 2:6-8
priest after the order of Melchizedek  The LORD has sworn and will not change His mind, "Thou art a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek." (Psalm 110:4 " Likewise we find (Zech. 4:14): 'These are the two sons of the clear-oil, that stand by the Lord of the whole earth." This refers to Aaron and the Messiah and we do not know who is more beloved; but as it is written, (Psa. 110:4): 'The Lord hath sworn and will not repent of it, 'Thou shalt be a Priest forever after the order of Melchizedek."
Talmud Babylonian (Aboth p. 112).
So also Christ did not glorify Himself so as to become a high priest, but He who said to Him, "Thou art My Son, Today I have begotten Thee"; just as He says also in another passage, "Thou art a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek." (Hebrews 5:5-6
triumphal entry  Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout in triumph, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your king is coming to you; He is just and endowed with salvation, Humble, and mounted on a donkey, even on a colt, the foal of a donkey. (Zechariah 9:9 "R. Hillel says there will be no Messiah for Israel, because they have enjoyed him already (fol. 99, col. 1) in the days of Hezekiah. Said Rav. Joseph, may God pardon R. Hillel. When was Hezekiah? In the first house, but Zechariah (9:9) prophesied in the second house. Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout O daughter of Jerusalem; behold thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, having Salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt, the foal of an ass." (Talmud Babylonian Sanh. fol. 99, c. 1). And they brought the colt to Jesus and put their garments on it; and He sat upon it.... And those who went before, and those who followed after, were crying out, "Hosanna! Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord;"... And He entered Jerusalem and came into the temple; and after looking all around, He departed for Bethany with the twelve, since it was already late. (Mark 11:7, 9, 11
entered the temple with authority  "Behold, I am going to send My messenger, and he will clear the way before Me. And the LORD, whom you seek, will suddenly come to His temple; and the messenger of the covenant, in whom you delight, behold, He is coming," says the LORD of hosts. (Malachi 3:1 "What is to be the manner of Messiah's coming, and where will be the place of his first appearance? He will make his first appearance in the land of Israel, as it is written, 'the Lord whom ye seek will come suddenly to His Temple."
R. Mosheh ben Maimon.
And Jesus entered the temple and cast out all those who were buying and selling in the temple, and overturned the tables of the moneychangers and the seats of those who were selling doves. (Matthew 21:12
sheep of the Shepherd scattered  "Awake, O sword, against My Shepherd, And against the man, My Associate," Declares the LORD of hosts. "Strike the Shepherd that the sheep may be scattered; and I will turn My hand against the little ones." (Zechariah 13:7 "I fear, O my Lord, that that which Zechariah, the prophet said, 'I will smite the Shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered,' was fulfilled when we smote the Shepherd of those little ones, and holy apostles.
R. Samuel Marochinanus, apud Burkium in loco e Mullero
Then Jesus said to them, "You will all fall away because of Me this night, for it is written, `I will strike down the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered.'" (Matthew 26:31
betrayed for thirty pieces of silver  And I said to them, "If it is good in your sight, give me my wages; but if not, never mind!" So they weighed out thirty shekels of silver as my wages. (Zechariah 11:12 Is Messianically explained in Bermid Rab. 98 fol. 85, 3), but with this remark, that the thirty pieces of silver apply to thirty precepts, the messiah is to give to Israel.
Edersheim (App. 9, p. 736).
Then one of the twelve, named Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests, and said, "What are you willing to give me to deliver Him up to you?" And they weighed out to him thirty pieces of silver. (Matthew 26:14-15
accused by false witnesses  Malicious witnesses rise up; they ask me of things that I do not know. (Psalm 35:11 "And afterward the Holy One will reveal to them Messiah, the Son of David, whom Israel will desire to stone, saying, 'Thou speakest falsely; already is the Messiah slain and there is none other Messiah to stand and so they will despise him.'"
Shim'on ben Yohai.
And some stood up and began to give false testimony against Him, saying, "We heard Him say, `I will destroy this temple made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.'" (Mark 14:57-58
vicarious sacrifice  But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, and by His scourging we are healed. (Isaiah 53:5 "And Messiah the King, who was chastened and suffered for the transgressors, as It is said, "He was wounded for our transgressions. and so on - how much more shall He justify all generations, and thus is what is meant when it is written, "And Jehovah made to meet upon Him the sins of us all."
Pugio Fidei (p. 675).
For while we were still helpless, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly.... But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. (Romans 5:6, 8
crucified with malefactors  Therefore, I will allot Him a portion with the great, and He will divide the booty with the strong; because He poured out Himself to death, and was numbered with the transgressors; yet He Himself bore the sin of many, and interceded for the transgressors. (Isaiah 53:12 "The fact is that it (Isa 52:53) refers to the king messiah, who will come in the latter days, when it will be the Lord's good pleasure to redeem Israel from among the different nations of the earth... "He was counted with the transgressors," because they appointed his grave by the side of the wicked.
Herz Homberg.
And they crucified two robbers with Him, one on His right and one on His left. [And the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "And He was numbered with transgressors."] (Mark 15:27-28
pierced through hands and feet  "And I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him, like the bitter weeping over a first-born. (Zechariah 12:10)

 For dogs have surrounded me; A band of evildoers has encompassed me; They pierced my hands and my feet. (Psalm 22:16
"And the heathen will look unto me to see what I will do to those who have pierced messiah, the son of Joseph."
Aben Ezra.
"It must be granted 'him that says, for Messiah the son of Joseph that shall be slain as it is written, 'And they shall look upon me whom they have pierced.'"
Talmud Babylonian (Succah 52, 1).
"The earliest Talmudic reference to this Second Messiah (son of Joseph) dates from the Third century of our era, and contains the strange and almost blasphemous notices that the prophecy of Zechariah concerning the mourning for him whom they have pierced, refer to Messiah the son of Joseph, who would be killed in the war of Gog and Magog, and, that, when Messiah the son of David, saw it He ,asked life of God, who gave it to Him, as it is written in Psa. 2: 'Ask Me and I will give Thee,' upon which God informed the messiah that His Father David had already asked and obtained this for him according to Psalm 21:4.-Sukka (52, a. and b)"
Edersheim (Vol. 2, p. 434).
The other disciples therefore were saying to him, "We have seen the Lord!" But he said to them, "Unless I shall see in His hands the imprint of the nails, and put my finger into the place of the nails, and put my hand into His side, I will not believe."... Then He said to Thomas, "Reach here your finger, and see My hands; and reach here your hand, and put it into My side; and be not unbelieving, but believing." (John 20:25-27
prayer for His enemies  In return for my love they act as my accusers; but I am in prayer. (Psalm 109:4)

 � yet He Himself bore the sin of many, and interceded for the transgressors. (Isaiah 53:12
"He (Messiah) shall intercede for many sins, and the rebellious for His sake shall be forgiven."
Targum Jonathan.
And when Israel is sinful, the Messiah seeks for mercy upon them, as it is written, "By His stripes we were healed, and he carried the sins of many; and made intercession for the transgressors."
B'reshith Rabbah (pp. 430, 671.)
But Jesus was saying, "Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing." And they cast lots, dividing up His garments among themselves. (Luke 23:34
His side pierced  "And I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him, like the bitter weeping over a first-born. (Zechariah 12:10 "And the heathen will look unto me to see what I will do to those who have pierced Messiah, the Son of Joseph.
Aben Ezra.
"It must be granted 'him that says, for messiah the son of Joseph that shall be slain as it is written, And they shall look upon me whom they have pierced."
Talmud Babylonian (Succah 52, 1).
but one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately there came out blood and water. (John 19:34
buried with the rich  His grave was assigned with wicked men, yet He was with a rich man in His death, because He had done no violence, nor was there any deceit in His mouth. (Isaiah 53:9 "The fact is that it (Isa 52:53) refers to the King Messiah, who will come in the latter days, when it will be the Lord's good pleasure to redeem Israel from among the different nations of the earth... "He was counted with the transgressors," because they appointed his grave by the side of -the wicked. Herz Homberg.
By the rich are meant the powerful men among the Gentiles, who are rich, while Israel in exile, is spoken of as poor and needy: at that time some of them will perish, and the prophet here declares, how the Messiah will resign himself to die, and be buried in their tomb.
Yapheth ben Ali.
Hence it is here said that he himself "Made His grave with the wicked"; he also made it with the rich in his death; he was not poor, but in His death could be . counted with the rich.
R. Sh'muel Lanyado. "The sense of the whole is, And He made in His deaths His grave with the wicked, and the rich: the plural "deaths" is used because Piercing Him as cruel men do, through and through, they would, so speak, be putting Him to death again and again."
Herz Homberg.
And when it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who himself had also become a disciple of Jesus. This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate ordered it to be given over to him. And Joseph took the body and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock; and he rolled a large stone against the entrance of the tomb and went away. (Matthew 27:57-60
sent the Holy Spirit  `For I will pour out water on the thirsty land and streams on the dry ground; I will pour out My Spirit on your offspring, and My blessing on your descendants;' (Isaiah 44:3)

 "And it will come about after this That I will pour out My Spirit on all mankind; And your sons and daughters will prophesy, Your old men will dream dreams, Your young men will see visions. (Joel 2:28
"And a right prophet (prophet of Righteousness) will the Lord your God give you, a prophet from among you of your brethren like unto me with the Holy Spirit, will the Lord your God raise up unto you; to Him shall ye be obedient."
Targum Palestine
And when He had said this, He breathed on them, and said to them, "Receive the Holy Spirit." (John 20:22)

 "but this is what was spoken of through the prophet Joel: `And it shall be in the last days,' God says, 'That I will pour forth of My Spirit upon all mankind; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams;'" (Acts 2:16-17
Establishes a new covenant  "Incline your ear and come to Me. Listen, that you may live; And I will make an everlasting covenant with you, According to the faithful mercies shown to David. Behold, I have made him a witness to the peoples, a leader and commander for the peoples. (Isaiah 55:3-4)

 Behold, days are coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah,...But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days," declares the LORD, "I will put My law within them, and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. (Jeremiah 31:31
"The Lord is both the Divine Majesty, and the Angel of the Covenant, for the sentence is doubled." Aben Ezra.
"'The lord' is the King Messiah; He is also the Angel of the Covenant."
Kimchi.
for this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins. (Matthew 26:28)

 And in the same way He took the cup after they had eaten, saying, "This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in My blood. (Luke 22:20)

 But now He has obtained a more excellent ministry, by as much as He is also the mediator of a better covenant, which has been enacted on better promises... For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel After those days, says the Lord: I will put My laws into their minds, And I will write them upon their hearts. And I will be their God, And they shall be My people. (Hebrews 8:6-10
His ascension to God's right hand  Thou hast ascended on high, Thou hast led captive Thy captives; Thou hast received gifts among men, even among the rebellious also, that the LORD God may dwell there. (Psalm 68:18)

 The LORD says to my Lord: "Sit at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies a footstool for Thy feet." (Psalm 110:1
"And this is the messiah our Righteousness, as it is said, "The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit on my right hand until I make thine enemies thy footstool.
R. Sa'adah Gaon
So then, when the Lord Jesus had spoken to them, He was received up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God. (Mark 16:19)

 and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, (1 Corinthians 15:4)

 Therefore it says, "When He ascended on high, He led captive a host of captives, And He gave gifts to men." (Ephesians 4:8
the Gentiles will seek the Messiah  The people who walk in darkness Will see a great light; Those who live in a dark land, The light will shine on them. (Isaiah 9:2)

 Then it will come about in that day that the nations will resort to the root of Jesse, Who will stand as a signal for the peoples; and His resting place will be glorious. (Isaiah 11:10)

 "I permitted Myself to be sought by those who did not ask for Me; I permitted Myself to be found by those who did not seek Me. I said, 'Here am I, here am I,' To a nation which did not call on My name." (Isaiah 65:1
"And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse, which shall stand for an Ensign of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek: and His rest shall be glorious." If so, then why should the Messiah come, and what will he do to the congregation of Israel? He will redeem Israel, and give them thirty commandments according to Zech. 11:12"
Edersheim.
For I do not want you, brethren, to be uninformed of this mystery, lest you be wise in your own estimation, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in; (Romans 11:25)

 "THE PEOPLE WHO WERE SITTING IN DARKNESS SAW A GREAT LIGHT, AND TO THOSE WHO WERE SITTING IN THE LAND AND SHADOW OF DEATH, UPON THEM A LIGHT DAWNED." (Matthew 4:16

Notes Top of page

  1. Much of the information in this paper is from a book by Dr. F. Kenton Beshore, who graciously agreed to allow the material to be used in this paper. The complete reference appears below:
    Beshore, F. Kenton , D.D., LL.D., Ph.D. 1971. Messiah of the Tanach, Targums, Talmuds, World Bible Society.
  2. The rabbinical writings include the Targums, Talmuds, and writings of individual rabbis. A brief description is included below (from reference 1):
    The Targum is the Aramaic translation of the Old Testament. It forms a part of the Jewish traditional literature, and in its inception is as early as the time of the second temple. The use of the term "Targum" by itself was restricted to the Aramaic Version of the Bible. As an interpretation of the Hebrew text of the Bible the Targum had its place both in the synagogual liturgy and in Biblical instruction, while the reading of the Bible text combined with the Targum in the presence of the congregation assembled for public worship was an ancient institution which dated from the time of the second temple, and was traced back to Ezra by Rab when he interpreted the word "Meforash" as referring to the Targum.
    "Palestine Targum" or Targum Yerushalmi). "A responsum of Hai Gaon already cited with reference to the Targumim, answers the question concerning the Targum of the land of Israel (Palestine) in the following words: "We do not know who composed it, nor do we even know this Targum of which we have heard only a few passages. If there is a tradition among them (the Palestinians) that it has been made the subject of public discourse since the days of the ancient sages it must be held in the same esteem as our Targum, for otherwise they would not have allowed it. But if it is less ancient, it is not authoritative."
    The Talmuds are two works which have been presented to posterity as the product of the Palestinian and Babylonian schools during the Amoraic period which extended from the third to the fifth century, C.E. One of these compilations is entitled, "Talmud Jerusalami" (Jerusalem Talmud), and the other Talmud Babli (Babylonian Talmud). Linguistically, the Palestinian Talmud is Aramaic. The Aramaic, which assumed a fixed literary form in Yerusalami, is almost the same as that of the earliest Palestinian midrashic works, differing from them only in a few peculiarities, mostly orthographic. The first complete edition of the Babylonian Talmud was printed at Venice, 1520-23, by Daniel Bomberg, and has become the basis, down to the present day, of a very large number of editions.
  3. Approximate Dates of Pseudepigraphic and Apocryphal Books
    NAME B.C. A.D.
    Book of Enoch 400-40  
    Book of Tobit 350  
    Book of Esdras 336-100  
    Book of Maccabees (Vols. I-II) 200-70  
    Book of Jesus, Son of- Sirach (Phys.) 200-175  
    Book of Judith 147-145  
    Book of Baruch 150  
    Book of Wisdom 150-140  
    Book of Jubilees 137-64  
    Septuagint (LXX) 287  
    Psalms of Solomon 187-4  
    Jonathan ben Uzziel Targum 30 50
    Onkelos 4 40
    Aquilla   128
    Philo Judaeus (Claudius Caesar) 20 41
    Flavius Josephus   37--103
    Mishna   105--220
    Talmud (Jerusalem)   320--350
    Talmud (Babylon)   427--550
    Joseph ben Gorion   900
    R. Saadiah Gaon   936
    R. Solomon Jarchi (Rashi)   1040-1105
    R Aben Ezra   1092-1167
    R. Moses ben Maimon (Maimonides)   1135-1204
    R. David Kimchi   1160-1240
    R. Abarbanel (Abrabanel)   1437--1508
    Zohar   70--1306

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Last Modified July 14, 2011

 

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