Molecular Biology Primer: All About DNA
by Rich Deem

Introduction

How does DNA=you?

This page explains the "central dogma" in biology - how DNA produces all the stuff that makes up living organisms.

Rich Deem

This page is a quick introduction to The branch of science that studies the structure and activity of macromolecules essential to life (and especially related to their genetic role).molecular biology. You will find on this site numerous references to Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA, Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA and Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins. In order to understand those pages, a basic understanding of how these molecules interact is necessary. This description is a very simplified version of what actually happens within a cell. In reality, the system is quite complex, with dozens of accessory molecules and co-factors required at each step.

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the information storage molecule for the cell. Each cell contains within the Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA the entire instruction set to produce and run an entire organism (including you). In multicellular organisms, most of the Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is stored in a central location within the cell, called the A membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nucleus.

Bases

Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is composed of only four Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases, which can be thought of as letters of the Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA alphabet. The structure of these four letters is shown in the figure to the right.DNA bases There are two Organic bases (adenine and guanine) made from a double ring structure, which base-pair with pyrimidines to form the rungs in the DNA double helix.purine Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases (A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA.adenine and A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with cytosine in both DNA and RNA.guanine) and two Organic bases (cytosine and thymine in DNA, uracil in RNA) made from a single ring structure, which base-pair with purines to form the rungs in the DNA double helix.pyrimidine Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases (A pyrimidine base found in DNA, which pairs with the complementary base adenine.thymine and A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.cytosine). The Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases are commonly abbreviated with the first letter of their names:

Nucleotide Bases
Base Abbrev.
adenine A
guanine G
thymine T
cytosine C

Nucleotides

When a Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base, such as A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA.adenine, is linked to a A five-carbon sugar, having one less hydroxyl group than ribose, which alternates with phosphate groups to form the backbone of DNA.deoxyribose sugar through a A certain type of functional group that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another, which may be another carbohydrate or amino group.glycosidic bond, the structure is called a The chemical combination of one of five single or double ringed bases and a sugar (ribose for RNA or deoxyribose for DNA).nucleoside. DeoxynucleotidesWhen the A five-carbon sugar, having one less hydroxyl group than ribose, which alternates with phosphate groups to form the backbone of DNA.deoxyribose sugar is The transferring of a phosphate group from a donor to an acceptor; often catalysed by enzymes.phosphorylated, on either the 3' or the 5' position (or both), the structure is a called a One of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotide. The precursors of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA synthesis are deoxynucleoside-5'-triphosphates or dNTPs.
 

DNA structure

Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is composed of a An organic polymer molecule composed of nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain. Polynucleotides can be either DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid).polynucleotide (multiple Structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. Nucleotides consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotides) chain that is formed by linking Structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. Nucleotides consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotides through 3',5'- Groups of strong covalent bonds between the phosphorus atom in a phosphate group and two other molecules over two ester bonds. In DNA and RNA, the phosphodiester bond is the linkage between the 3' carbon atom and the 5' carbon of the sugar deoxyribose (in DNA) or ribose (in RNA).phosphodiester bonds. In this way, Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA forms a long chain of sequential Structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. Nucleotides consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotides.

Polynucleotide
Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA chains are not usually just single strands of Structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. Nucleotides consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotides. Usually, Structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. Nucleotides consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotides of two An organic polymer molecule composed of nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain. Polynucleotides can be either DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid).polynucleotide strands are Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base-paired to each other. The One of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotide Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA.adenine pairs through hydrogen bonds with the One of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotide A pyrimidine base found in DNA, which pairs with the complementary base adenine.thymine forming an A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA.adenine-A pyrimidine base found in DNA, which pairs with the complementary base adenine.thymine (A-T) Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pair. A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with cytosine in both DNA and RNA.Guanine binds with A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.cytosine forming a A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with cytosine in both DNA and RNA.guanine-A pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with guanine in both DNA and RNA.cytosine (G-C) Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pair. Because of this Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairing, An organic polymer molecule composed of nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain. Polynucleotides can be either DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic acid).polynucleotide chains in double-stranded Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA are always complementary to each other.

DNA Double Helix

DNA Double Helix

The nature of the bonds between One of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotide Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases results in the famous "double helix" Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA structure. The hydrogen bonding between strands of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA holds the strands together until they are separated for Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA replication or Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA The process by which the DNA sequence of a gene is copied by RNA polymerase to produce a complementary nucleotide messenger RNA strand.transcription.

DNA Replication

Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is replicated (reproduced) through an extremely complicated process. This is the simplified version. DNA replicationThe two strands of Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA are separated and a new complementary strand is synthesized for each old strand by adding complementary Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs to the newly-synthesized strand (see figure at right). The Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA polymerase (the enzyme that makes new Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA) reads the Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base on the original strand and adds the complementary Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base to the newly synthesized strand. Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is always synthesized in a 5� to 3� direction. Since one strand runs in the opposite direction, it must be synthesized in pieces that are later connected with A special enzyme that can link together two DNA strands that have double-strand break (a break in both complementary strands of DNA).DNA ligase. In reality, both strands are synthesized in pieces, since the Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is unwound at numerous sites simultaneously on each One of the threadlike "packages" of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Different kinds of organisms have different numbers of chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in all: 44 autosomes and two sex chromosomes. Each parent contributes one chromosome to each pair, so children get half of their chromosomes from their mothers and half from their fathers.chromosome in order to produce a complete copy in a short period of time (hours instead of weeks).
 

RNA

How does DNA turn in you?

Since Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA just stores information, there needs to be a way to turn the information into physical bodies. thymine-uracilThis feat is accomplished through the synthesis of an intermediate information-carrying molecule that carries the information from the A membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nucleus to the The contents of a cell (excluding the nucleus), including the cytosol, organelles, vesicles, and the cytoskeleton.cytoplasm, where it is processed into Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins. The intermediate molecule is called Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA (ribonucleic acid). As you can tell from the name, it differs from Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA in that part of it (the A five-carbon sugar found in RNA (ribonucleic acid), where it alternates with phosphate groups to form the backbone of the RNA polymer.ribose sugar) has an extra oxygen compared to Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA (the "deoxy" version). In addition, Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA does not use A pyrimidine base found in DNA, which pairs with the complementary base adenine.thymine as a Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base, but another One of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotide known as A pyrimidine base found in RNA, which pairs with the complementary base adenine.uracil (see figure right). A pyrimidine base found in RNA, which pairs with the complementary base adenine.Uracil forms Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.base pairs with A purine base found in DNA and RNA, which pairs with thymine in DNA or with uracil in RNA.adenine, as A pyrimidine base found in DNA, which pairs with the complementary base adenine.thymine does in Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA. Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA is The process by which the DNA sequence of a gene is copied by RNA polymerase to produce a complementary nucleotide messenger RNA strand.transcribed from Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA through an enzyme called An enzyme that makes an RNA copy of a DNA or RNA template, generally in a process called transcription.RNA polymerase, in a process that is known as The process by which the DNA sequence of a gene is copied by RNA polymerase to produce a complementary nucleotide messenger RNA strand.transcription. There are several kinds of Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA, which have different functions. However, the Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA that eventually codes for Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins is called messenger Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA (Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA).

Translation

Central dogma of biologyOnce Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA is synthesized, it is processed (usually through splicing) in the A membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nucleus before moving to the The contents of a cell (excluding the nucleus), including the cytosol, organelles, vesicles, and the cytoskeleton.cytoplasm. In many instances, alternate splicing of an Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA The RNA product produced from the DNA sequence of a gene by the action of the enzyme RNA polymerase.transcript can produce multiple Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins. It is one of the chief ways that 25,000 genes in the human All the DNA contained in an organism or a cell, which includes both the chromosomes within the nucleus and the DNA in mitochondria.genome can make ~100,000 Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins. Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.Proteins are produced from an Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA template using a process known as The production of proteins through decoding mRNA to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code.translation. The The production of proteins through decoding mRNA to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code.translation process is quite complicated and requires numerous molecular machines and co-factors. This description is a simplified version of what happens. A large molecular machine, called the Complexes of RNA and protein that function in the translation of RNA into protein.ribosome, binds to the Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA. Complexes of RNA and protein that function in the translation of RNA into protein.Ribosomes are composed of two subunits. The large subunit is composed of three forms of Relating to ribosomes, complexes of RNA and protein that function in the translation of RNA into protein.ribosomal Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA (The two ribosomal RNA subunits make up the central component of the ribosome, which provides a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids by interacting with the tRNAs during the translation process.rRNA) and 49 different Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins. The smaller subunit is composed of one The two ribosomal RNA subunits make up the central component of the ribosome, which provides a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids by interacting with the tRNAs during the translation process.rRNA and 33 different Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins. A third kind of Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA, transfer Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA (A small RNA molecule that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis.tRNA), carries A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acids that are used to make Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins according to the Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA template. One end of A small RNA molecule that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis.tRNA, consisting of three Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases, called the A sequence of three nucleotides in transfer RNA that binds to the complementary triplet (codon) in messenger RNA to specify an amino acid during protein synthesis.anticodon, binds to a series of three complementary Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases, called the A specific sequence of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies the genetic code information for encoding a specific amino acid into a polypeptide chain.codon on the Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA strand. The other end of the A small RNA molecule that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis.tRNA binds to a specific A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acid. Specific sequence on the Ribonucleic acid: a chemical that directs the manufacture of proteins and sometimes codes for the genetic material within certain organisms.RNA are The act of producing proteins through decoding mRNA to form a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code.translated into Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins according to the The set 64 possible nucleotide triplets (codons) by which information encoded in genetic material (DNA or RNA sequences) is translated into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells.genetic code. Each set of three One of the structural components, or building blocks, of DNA and RNA. A nucleotide consists of a base plus a molecule of sugar and one of phosphate.nucleotide Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases codes for one A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acid. This code is nearly universal for all organisms (with a few exceptions). The code is reproduced below:

The Genetic Code
Codon AA Codon AA Codon AA Codon AA
UUU Phe UCU Ser UAU Tyr UGU Cys
UUC UAC UGC UGC
UUA Leu UCA UAA Stop UGA Stop
UUG UCG UAG UGG Trp
CUU Leu CCU Pro CAU His CGU Arg
CUC CCC CAC CGC
CUA CCA CAA Gln CGA
CUG CCG CAG CGG
AUU Ile ACU Thr AAU Asn AGU Ser
AUC ACC AAC AGC
AUA Met ACA AAA Lys AGA Arg
AUG ACG AAG AGG
GUU Val GCU Ala GAU Asp GGU Gly
GUC GCC GAC GGC
GUA GCA GAA Glu GGA
GUG GCG GAG GGG

An animated model of how Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins are formed can be watched to the right (Point mouse over thumbnail). The 30s subunit of the Complexes of RNA and protein that function in the translation of RNA into protein.ribosome binds to the Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA. A specific A small RNA molecule that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis.tRNA (usually the first A specific sequence of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies the genetic code information for encoding a specific amino acid into a polypeptide chain.codon codes for The amino acid coded for by the initiation codon of all protein encoding genetic sequences. Therefore, all polypeptides begin with methionine, although post-translational modification may remove it.methionine) binds to the A specific sequence of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies the genetic code information for encoding a specific amino acid into a polypeptide chain.codon of the Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA The 50s Relating to ribosomes, complexes of RNA and protein that function in the translation of RNA into protein.ribosomal subunit binds to the 30s subunit. The next A small RNA molecule that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis.tRNA binds to the next A specific sequence of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies the genetic code information for encoding a specific amino acid into a polypeptide chain.codon on the Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA and numerous initiation factors and the enzyme An aminoacyltransferase as well as the primary enzymatic function of the 50S ribosome subunit, which acts as a ribozyme to link adjacent amino acids during protein translation.peptidyl transferase link the two A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins. Often referred to as the "building blocks" of proteins.amino acids together through a A compound consisting of two or more amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.peptide bond. As the Relating to ribosomes, complexes of RNA and protein that function in the translation of RNA into protein.ribosomal complex moves along the Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA, the A compound consisting of two or more amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.peptide chain gets longer until the entire An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein is formed. Other molecular machines are responsible for making sure that the An organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.protein folds into the correct three dimensional shape.

Conclusion Top of page

Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA is made of 4 chemical Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases that are linked together sequentially. These 3 billion Two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds.bases determine what you will look like and how your body will work. In order to express the information stored in the Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA, your cells have a complicated system that moves the information contained with the Deoxyribonucleic acid: the chemical inside the nucleus of a cell that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms.DNA out of the cell's A membrane-enclosed organelle found in all eukaryotic (non-bacterial) cells, which contains most of the cell's DNA genetic material, organized to form chromosomes.nucleus (through Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA) into the The contents of a cell (excluding the nucleus), including the cytosol, organelles, vesicles, and the cytoskeleton.cytoplasm. Once the Messenger ribonucleic acid is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical 'blueprint' for a protein product, which is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries this information to the sites of protein synthesis.mRNA is in the The contents of a cell (excluding the nucleus), including the cytosol, organelles, vesicles, and the cytoskeleton.cytoplasm it is The act of producing proteins through decoding mRNA to form a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the genetic code.translated into Organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain, joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of the adjacent amino acid residues.proteins, which are the building blocks of the cell. Are you ready to use your new knowledge? Check out these articles:

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